If it is not too late – Happy New Year! We’ve been a bit quiet on here lately and you may have thought we were not up to much, but things have been very busy. Back in November the Archive was invited by the Académie Internationale de la Pipe to give a paper at their conference, which was being held in Japan at the Tobacco and Salt Museum in Tokyo. This was the perfect opportunity, and setting, for us to present a report on how the Historic England project that we have been working on has been progressing, and to highlight some of the Archive’s collections.
The whole smoking culture in Japan is very different from here. The pipes look completely different – called Kiseru – and the tobacco is also very different, being incredibly finely shredded.
As part of the conference we were very lucky to have been given the opportunity to visit a traditional kiseru maker in Tsubame.
He makes his pipes out of metal. The basic pattern is cut out of metal and then the maker painstakingly hammers them into shape. In order to help us understand the process he had a series of different stages of the process laid out for us. Gradually the pipe emerges from a flat piece of metal into a full formed pipe.
The whole process is far too time consuming for him to show us the production of a pipe from start to finish during the short time we had with him, but he did allow us to film him at work (see the video below). This gave a chance to get a feel for how it was done.
Some Kiseru are made completely out of metal, but others have a metal bowl and metal mouthpiece section, with a simple bamboo stem in between. We have two such examples in the Archive’s collection.
The first example is from the Cole Collection (LIVNP 2014.03.099). This pipe has not been hand crafted as the examples we saw in Tsubame, but has been cast. Both the bowl and the mouthpiece have intertwined animals. The stem is made of bamboo.
The second example is from the Orlik Collection (LIVNP 2016.13.01). This pipe also has a bamboo stem and but this time the bowl and mouthpiece are made of silver, which has been engraved with flowers.
Since we have been back we have been working hard on the Archive website; putting up lots more pages with even more pipe information. There is still more to come and now we are back, regular posts will resume.
This week’s blog entry is a combination of an update on the current Historic England project on one hand, and a nostalgic look back at an ongoing project, the Jarzemboswki Collection (LIVNP 2005.24), on the other.
Back in 2005, thanks to support from the Worshipful Company of Tobacco Pipe Makers and Tobacco Blenders, the Archive was able to acquire a very substantial collection of clay tobacco pipes from Ed Jarzembowsk and his wife. The vast majority of the fragments had been collected by the couple from the Thames Foreshore from around Blackfriars and Queenhithe, but it also included a large of fragments from Salisbury that were collected following dredging work on the River Avon.
When the pipes came to us each individual pipe had been placed in a paper envelope on which Ed and his wife had painstakingly recorded where the fragment had been found, the date it had been found and any mark that was on it. Not only that, but they had also attempted to identify the maker from that mark, which more often than not was a moulded mark. These envelopes were then placed into a large number of lettuce boxes. This storage system worked fine until it came to transporting it half way across the country to Liverpool. By the time the pipes had reached Liverpool, most of them had jumped out of their envelopes. It was only thanks to the Jarzembowskis’ excellent record keeping that we were able to get the fragments back in to their correct envelope!
Clearly priority had to be given to getting these fragments properly marked and bagged. Therefore, this was our first mammoth task and in 2006 the first of a long line of volunteers set about marking, bagging and cataloguing a collection with an estimated 10,000 fragments.
Our position within a university environment enables us to offer training and research opportunities for students from the departments of archaeology, history and archives. Since the NPA employs a comprehensive cataloguing and indexing system that conforms to Museum Documentation Association standards, we are able to provide training for students who wish to seek future employment with the museum and heritage sector. Large collections, such as the Jarzemboswki’s mean there is plenty of material for them to get their teeth into. It’s a win-win situation – they get the training and we get some much needed help.
Each fragment within the collection has been given a unique accession number and has been carefully bagged. All of the fragments with stamp marks have been impressed for inclusion in the National Clay Tobacco Pipe Stamp Index, which is another very important project that the Archive is associated with – but that is a whole other story!
Once marked with their accession number and, having had any stamped mark recorded, the full details of that fragment including details of any attribution Ed and his wife were able to make, were logged onto an Excel table. This table is both sortable and searchable. Great progress was made during the initial push from our volunteers who managed to fully catalogue over 6,000 of the estimated 10,000 fragments. We are very pleased to say that many of those initial volunteers have gone on to pursue careers in the museum sector and we like to think that their time spent with the Archive has helped them on their way. Last week, a new set of volunteers started working with us.
These new volunteers are working on a number of our collections, one of them being the Jarzembowski Collection and it is hoped that this last push will see the catalogue of this group of pipes finally completed. At that point we’ll be able to upload the catalogue to our website so that it is fully available for researchers. Yes it has taken nearly 10 years – but sometime things are worth waiting for!
In the Spotlight this week is a clay pipe depicting the Duke of Wellington (1769-1852), but in a far less flattering pose than we are used to seeing.
Wellington, or the ‘Iron Duke’, was a leading military and political figure of the 19th century and considered to be one of the greatest commanders of all time. He was primeminister twice and was a leading figure in the House of Lords until his retirement in 1846. He was also Commander in Chief of the British Army, a position he held until his death in 1852. So what could be going on with this caricatured pipe?
The pipe depicts Wellington in uniform complete with epaulettes, which have been picked out in gold enamel. Wellington’s head forms bowl of the pipe, with black and white enamel for his eyes and eyebrows, and pink enamel for his lips. But the stem socket behind his head is formed by a soldier “thumbing his nose” at Wellington in a rather disrespectful manner, whilst holding a pipe in his left hand!
The reason for this mocking soldier can be found in Fairholt’s Tobacco: Its History and Associations, published in 1859. Not only does Fairholt illustrate the pipe, but informs us that “the late Duke of Wellington, towards the close of his life, took a strong dislike to the use of tobacco in the army, and made some ineffectual attempts to suppress it. Benda, a wholesale pipe importer in the city, employed Dumeril, of St. Omer, to commemorate the event” (p185-6).
What Fairholt was referring to is General Order 577, which was published in the London Illustrated News on 29th November 1845 (page 339), and read:
“The Commander-in-Chief has been informed, that the practice of smoking, by the use of pipes, cigars, or cheroots, has become prevalent among the Officers of the Army, which is not only in itself a species of intoxication occasioned by the fumes of tobacco, but, undoubtedly, occasions drinking and tippling by those who acquire the habit; and he entreats the Officers commanding Regiments to prevent smoking in the Mess Rooms of their several Regiments, and in the adjoining apartments, and to discourage the practice among the Officers of Junior Rank in their Regiments”.
In 1900 Herbert Maxwell published an account of Wellington’s life and he noted that this “counterblast” was about as effective as that of James I’s in 1604, but he goes on to say that “for a while tobacco-stoppers, carved in his likeness, became very popular” (Maxell 1900, 124).
The example in our collection is part of the Pollock Archive and has been allocated the accession number LIVNP 2013.05.02. It is in pristine condition and has clearly not been smoked. Detail on the pipe has been picked out in black, white, pink and gold enamel. On the base of the pipe is a rectangular relief stamped mark reading DUMERIL LEURS & CO A ST OMER. There is also an oval stamp with the letters H*M.
Dumeril’s factory was founded in 1844 in St Omer, France (Raphael 1991, 108), and by 1851 their pipes were being advertised in TheTimes:
TO WHOLESALE DEALERS in, and EXPORTERS of FRENCH, Plain, Fancy and Enamelled CLAY-PIPES. Bronzed Statuaries, &c – Messrs DUMERIL, LEWIS and Co., manufacturers, St. Omer, France, inform them that orders are received at their office, 9, ST Mary-axe, City. (The Times [London, England] 21 Nov. 1851: 4. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 19 Oct. 2016.)
It has not yet been possible to trace Benda, the importers referred to in Fairholt’s account (1859, 185), but the implication from Fairholt’s reference, is that they were one of the “wholesale pipe” importers” that were being targeted by Dumeril’s 1851 advertisement.
Given that we know Dumeril’s factory was not founded until 1845, and that Fairholt not only reported on the pipe but illustrated an example in 1859, we can date the introduction of this pipe design quite closely to between 1845 and 1859.
Anon, 1845, ‘Naval and Military Intelligence’ London Illustrated News, 29 November 1845, 339.
Fairholt, F. W., 1859 Tobacco: Its History and Associations: Including an Account of the Plant and Its Manufacture; with its Modes of use in all ages and Countries, London, 332pp.
Maxwell, Herbert, 1900 The Life of Wellington: The Restoration of the Martial Power of Great Britain, Vol 2, London, 513pp.
Raphael, M., 1991 La Pipe en Terre, Editions Aztec, France, 285pp.
It is all happening in the Archive today! Not one, but two volunteers are now beavering away to try and get more of the Archive’s collections available to the wider world. Today was the first day for our latest recruit, Diana, who started working on the Jacques Cole Collection (LIVNP 2014.03).
Jacques was a briar pipe man and his donation provides the Archive with a valuable resource for the study and understanding of the briar pipe industry in both Britain and France. The collection includes briar pipes from the likes of Charatan, Comoys, Ropp, and Lecroix, to name but a few, as well as smoking ephemera – such as ashtrays, lighters, snuff bottles, tobacco pouches and tobacco jars.
The element of the collection that Diana is working through at the moment, however, is the paper archive which includes a small library of pipe and smoking related publications, but also a large collection of correspondence relating to Jacques’ life as editor of the magazine Tobacco, and the newsletter Pipeline.
This is certainly going to keep us all busy for some time to come as the entire collection comprises some 34 boxes of material. However, one gem from the collection stood out today, which is the source of today’s blog post. Jacques had a note book in which he started to record useful pipe-related terminology – a sort of glossary – and this included an interesting take on his definition of “cash” and a “cheque” from the perspective of a pipe collector!
You can find out more about the Jacques Cole Collection on our website (http://www.pipearchive.co.uk/briar/cole.html). We will keep you posted on progress as we slowly work our way through the cataloguing of this and other collections, so don’t forget to follow this blog in order to receive notifications of our updates.
This week’s Spotlight object is a copy of the By-Laws of the London Company of Tobacco Pipe Makers, which is dated 1800.
For many years the organisation of the pipe making industry in and around London was in the hands of an incorporated company of tobacco pipe makers. The company came under the jurisdiction of the City of London authorities and was able to present its freemen to the City Chamberlain for admission to the freedom of the city. This basically meant that they were entitled to trade within the city. Unfortunately, very little is known about the company or its origins as few records survive but what is clear is that there were in fact three distinct companies of tobacco pipe makers, with their roots going back to the early days of the pipemaking at the start of the seventeenth century.
The first company came in to being in 1619 under James I, who granted a charter of incorporation to the “Master Wardens and Society of Tobacco Pipe makers of Westmynster”. This was a short-lived organisation, their Patent being officially surrendered in 1621, although they appear to have continued functioning in some form until the mid-1620s. The second company was formed in 1634 when a charter was granted to the “tobacco pipe makers in the Cities of London and Westminster”. This was, once again, revoked a few years later in 1639, although the company appears to have lingered on until about 1642. The third company came into existence in 1663 when Charles II extended the charter to pipe makers in the cities of London and Westminster as well as the Kingdom of England and the dominion of Wales. It is the third company that regulated pipemaking in and around the capital for the next two centuries and this is the one that the document in the Archive collections relates to.
The document is entitled Extracts of the Bye-Laws of the Worshipful Company or Society of Tobacco-Pipe-Makers of the Cities of London and Westminster, Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, made on the 23 March 1738, and approved, allowed, and confirmed by the then Lord Chancellor and Two Chief Justices. This particular copy, however, was clearly printed in or after 1800 (the date is at the foot of the document) and it is signed by Thomas Phipps, Clerk. These extracts deal with the rules relating to apprenticeships.
These regulations limited the number of apprentices that a master pipemaker could take and state that any new apprentice within 20 miles of London had to be presented to the Master and Wardens of the Company before being taken on, or within a month of starting. They also stipulated that any children of a pipemaker must be formally bound as an apprentice from the age of 14 and that pipemakers were prohibited from hawking their wares about the streets for sale. An apprenticeship was normally for 7 years, with the apprentice being eligible to set up his own business and trade independently when it was completed at about the age of 21.
These regulations shed a fascinating light on the way the trade was run and the restrictions that applied to pipemaking families in terms of employing their children or selling their wares. They show how regulated commercial life was during the eighteenth century and provide insights into the ways in which pipes were manufactured and distributed from the workshops.
We decided that in addition to our updates on the Historic England project, we’d like to use the blog to highlight some of the objects in our collection – to throw a “spotlight” on them.
Today the “spotlight” falls on an object that the NPA acquired in 1998. This tobacco box (Acc. No. LIVNP 1998.34.18) had originally been donated to Darlington Museum by Dr Kirk in May 1925, but was formally transferred to the Archive’s collection in 1998 when the collections in Darlington were, sadly, dispersed.
The box is rectangular and measures c13.5 x 14 x 10.5cm, and is made of lead. There is also an inner lead lid to help press down on the tobacco that it would have held. The box was produced by Stock and Son. The registration mark on the base dates to 14 March 1856. On the interior lid someone has scratched what appears to read “J Christie” – could this have been a former owner?
The box has suffered a little over the years and is slightly bent and battered, but most of the battle scenes on the sides of the box are well preserved.
The lid has a lion finial and the names of four Crimean battles –Alma, fought on 20 September 1854, considered the first battle of the Crimean War; Sebastopol, known as the Siege of Sebastopol between September 1854 until September 1855; Balaklava, fought on 25 October 1854, and Inkerman, fought on 5 November 1854.
We are very pleased to have such an interesting item in our collection. This object is currently on display at the Victoria Gallery and Museum in Liverpool.
Adrian Oswald (1908-2001) was, arguably, one of the founding fathers of post-medieval archaeology in Britain and his early publications not only laid the foundation for modern clay pipe research but also placed the study of pipes firmly at the centre of this new discipline.
In 1938 Adrian, who had studied history at Oxford, became archaeological assistant for the City of London’s Guildhall Museum. He was one of the first to recognise the significance of the capital’s post-medieval archaeology. In a radio broadcast in 1950 he said:
“Early one autumn morning in 1947 I stood on a bombed site at Cripplegate in the City of London and saw our workmen, excavating on the site of the ancient house of Neville’s Inn, thrown out from cess pits of the time of the Great Fire, quantities of clay tobacco pipes with pottery of all kinds. So began my curiosity in this subject. Such was the humble beginning of my researches and now, three years later, my house has clay tobacco pipes dotted about all over the place, my letters on the subject go to all parts of the world and piles of manuscripts begin to paint the picture an old, almost forgotten industry”.
He also said:
“a clay pipe can talk confidentially to me and can nearly always tell me when it was made, often where it was made and sometimes who made it”.
Using his wide knowledge of post-medieval artefacts Adrian used stratigraphic groups and sequences to establish reliable typologies for pipe bowls. His interests extended to include the social and economic background to the industry.
Following his retirement in 1964 he brought together his wealth of knowledge in Clay Pipes for the Archaeologist (BAR, British Series No. 14, Oxford, 1975), a seminal work which stands to this day as a standard reference work for all those interested in the study of pipes.
One of Adrian’s many research projects was his mark index. This index pulls together all the examples Adrian could find of marked pipes.
The mark index is grouped in a logical way, as is only to be expected of something that Adrian did. It is arranged in alphabetical order by surname and then Christian name (for example AA, BA, CA, DA ….. AB, BB, CB, DB…. Etc.). For each set of initials there is a typed “index” page that gives details of each example such as possible maker, provenance etc. This page is typed on an old fashioned typewriter so Adrian could add more examples as he came across them. There is then a series of drawings of these examples to accompany each “index” page. The sheets of drawings, or tracings are then often either loose drawings that have been stuck to an A4 piece of paper, or a sheet of tracing paper that he could then add to. Each surname initial is bundled together either held together with a paperclip or kept in a plastic packet.
Adrian’s drawings, by his own admission, were not the best, and they were often roughly traced from publications or photographs and were intended to give an indication of the bowl form rather than be an accurate depiction. In 1991 Adrian gave the National Pipe Archive access to his mark index and a copy was made and bound in four volumes for the archive’s use. These were later accessioned with the number LIVNP 1997.08.01-04.
Adrian continued to update his lists and indexes and produced a steady stream of publications until 1997, when failing health forced him to stop. Following his death in 2001 the majority of his books and files were deposited for safekeeping with Richard Le Cheminant in London.
In 2014, following Richard Le Cheminant’s death, Adrian Oswald’s paper archive was transferred to the National Pipe Archive, in accordance with Adrian’s long term wish. We are therefore in the fortunate position of having the original manuscript of the mark index together with all of the updates since 1991 (LIVNP 2014.01.192). These updates include moulded marks, French and Dutch marks as well as groups of pipes that fall into broad types such as “heads”, “transport”, “advertising”, “floral” and “societies” etc.
As part of the present Historic England funded project we made a start on digitising this mark index. To date we have scanned the first part of the alphabetical list – A to F – which we hope to get live on the website within the next few days. Time permitting, and within the confines of the current project, we are hopeful that we will be able to not only digitise more of the mark index, but also some of Adrian’s other invaluable resources. So watch this space!