It is all happening in the Archive today! Not one, but two volunteers are now beavering away to try and get more of the Archive’s collections available to the wider world. Today was the first day for our latest recruit, Diana, who started working on the Jacques Cole Collection (LIVNP 2014.03).
Jacques was a briar pipe man and his donation provides the Archive with a valuable resource for the study and understanding of the briar pipe industry in both Britain and France. The collection includes briar pipes from the likes of Charatan, Comoys, Ropp, and Lecroix, to name but a few, as well as smoking ephemera – such as ashtrays, lighters, snuff bottles, tobacco pouches and tobacco jars.
The element of the collection that Diana is working through at the moment, however, is the paper archive which includes a small library of pipe and smoking related publications, but also a large collection of correspondence relating to Jacques’ life as editor of the magazine Tobacco, and the newsletter Pipeline.
This is certainly going to keep us all busy for some time to come as the entire collection comprises some 34 boxes of material. However, one gem from the collection stood out today, which is the source of today’s blog post. Jacques had a note book in which he started to record useful pipe-related terminology – a sort of glossary – and this included an interesting take on his definition of “cash” and a “cheque” from the perspective of a pipe collector!
You can find out more about the Jacques Cole Collection on our website (http://www.pipearchive.co.uk/briar/cole.html). We will keep you posted on progress as we slowly work our way through the cataloguing of this and other collections, so don’t forget to follow this blog in order to receive notifications of our updates.
This week’s Spotlight object is a copy of the By-Laws of the London Company of Tobacco Pipe Makers, which is dated 1800.
For many years the organisation of the pipe making industry in and around London was in the hands of an incorporated company of tobacco pipe makers. The company came under the jurisdiction of the City of London authorities and was able to present its freemen to the City Chamberlain for admission to the freedom of the city. This basically meant that they were entitled to trade within the city. Unfortunately, very little is known about the company or its origins as few records survive but what is clear is that there were in fact three distinct companies of tobacco pipe makers, with their roots going back to the early days of the pipemaking at the start of the seventeenth century.
The first company came in to being in 1619 under James I, who granted a charter of incorporation to the “Master Wardens and Society of Tobacco Pipe makers of Westmynster”. This was a short-lived organisation, their Patent being officially surrendered in 1621, although they appear to have continued functioning in some form until the mid-1620s. The second company was formed in 1634 when a charter was granted to the “tobacco pipe makers in the Cities of London and Westminster”. This was, once again, revoked a few years later in 1639, although the company appears to have lingered on until about 1642. The third company came into existence in 1663 when Charles II extended the charter to pipe makers in the cities of London and Westminster as well as the Kingdom of England and the dominion of Wales. It is the third company that regulated pipemaking in and around the capital for the next two centuries and this is the one that the document in the Archive collections relates to.
The document is entitled Extracts of the Bye-Laws of the Worshipful Company or Society of Tobacco-Pipe-Makers of the Cities of London and Westminster, Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, made on the 23 March 1738, and approved, allowed, and confirmed by the then Lord Chancellor and Two Chief Justices. This particular copy, however, was clearly printed in or after 1800 (the date is at the foot of the document) and it is signed by Thomas Phipps, Clerk. These extracts deal with the rules relating to apprenticeships.
These regulations limited the number of apprentices that a master pipemaker could take and state that any new apprentice within 20 miles of London had to be presented to the Master and Wardens of the Company before being taken on, or within a month of starting. They also stipulated that any children of a pipemaker must be formally bound as an apprentice from the age of 14 and that pipemakers were prohibited from hawking their wares about the streets for sale. An apprenticeship was normally for 7 years, with the apprentice being eligible to set up his own business and trade independently when it was completed at about the age of 21.
These regulations shed a fascinating light on the way the trade was run and the restrictions that applied to pipemaking families in terms of employing their children or selling their wares. They show how regulated commercial life was during the eighteenth century and provide insights into the ways in which pipes were manufactured and distributed from the workshops.
We decided that in addition to our updates on the Historic England project, we’d like to use the blog to highlight some of the objects in our collection – to throw a “spotlight” on them.
Today the “spotlight” falls on an object that the NPA acquired in 1998. This tobacco box (Acc. No. LIVNP 1998.34.18) had originally been donated to Darlington Museum by Dr Kirk in May 1925, but was formally transferred to the Archive’s collection in 1998 when the collections in Darlington were, sadly, dispersed.
The box is rectangular and measures c13.5 x 14 x 10.5cm, and is made of lead. There is also an inner lead lid to help press down on the tobacco that it would have held. The box was produced by Stock and Son. The registration mark on the base dates to 14 March 1856. On the interior lid someone has scratched what appears to read “J Christie” – could this have been a former owner?
The box has suffered a little over the years and is slightly bent and battered, but most of the battle scenes on the sides of the box are well preserved.
The lid has a lion finial and the names of four Crimean battles –Alma, fought on 20 September 1854, considered the first battle of the Crimean War; Sebastopol, known as the Siege of Sebastopol between September 1854 until September 1855; Balaklava, fought on 25 October 1854, and Inkerman, fought on 5 November 1854.
We are very pleased to have such an interesting item in our collection. This object is currently on display at the Victoria Gallery and Museum in Liverpool.
Adrian Oswald (1908-2001) was, arguably, one of the founding fathers of post-medieval archaeology in Britain and his early publications not only laid the foundation for modern clay pipe research but also placed the study of pipes firmly at the centre of this new discipline.
In 1938 Adrian, who had studied history at Oxford, became archaeological assistant for the City of London’s Guildhall Museum. He was one of the first to recognise the significance of the capital’s post-medieval archaeology. In a radio broadcast in 1950 he said:
“Early one autumn morning in 1947 I stood on a bombed site at Cripplegate in the City of London and saw our workmen, excavating on the site of the ancient house of Neville’s Inn, thrown out from cess pits of the time of the Great Fire, quantities of clay tobacco pipes with pottery of all kinds. So began my curiosity in this subject. Such was the humble beginning of my researches and now, three years later, my house has clay tobacco pipes dotted about all over the place, my letters on the subject go to all parts of the world and piles of manuscripts begin to paint the picture an old, almost forgotten industry”.
He also said:
“a clay pipe can talk confidentially to me and can nearly always tell me when it was made, often where it was made and sometimes who made it”.
Using his wide knowledge of post-medieval artefacts Adrian used stratigraphic groups and sequences to establish reliable typologies for pipe bowls. His interests extended to include the social and economic background to the industry.
Following his retirement in 1964 he brought together his wealth of knowledge in Clay Pipes for the Archaeologist (BAR, British Series No. 14, Oxford, 1975), a seminal work which stands to this day as a standard reference work for all those interested in the study of pipes.
One of Adrian’s many research projects was his mark index. This index pulls together all the examples Adrian could find of marked pipes.
The mark index is grouped in a logical way, as is only to be expected of something that Adrian did. It is arranged in alphabetical order by surname and then Christian name (for example AA, BA, CA, DA ….. AB, BB, CB, DB…. Etc.). For each set of initials there is a typed “index” page that gives details of each example such as possible maker, provenance etc. This page is typed on an old fashioned typewriter so Adrian could add more examples as he came across them. There is then a series of drawings of these examples to accompany each “index” page. The sheets of drawings, or tracings are then often either loose drawings that have been stuck to an A4 piece of paper, or a sheet of tracing paper that he could then add to. Each surname initial is bundled together either held together with a paperclip or kept in a plastic packet.
Adrian’s drawings, by his own admission, were not the best, and they were often roughly traced from publications or photographs and were intended to give an indication of the bowl form rather than be an accurate depiction. In 1991 Adrian gave the National Pipe Archive access to his mark index and a copy was made and bound in four volumes for the archive’s use. These were later accessioned with the number LIVNP 1997.08.01-04.
Adrian continued to update his lists and indexes and produced a steady stream of publications until 1997, when failing health forced him to stop. Following his death in 2001 the majority of his books and files were deposited for safekeeping with Richard Le Cheminant in London.
In 2014, following Richard Le Cheminant’s death, Adrian Oswald’s paper archive was transferred to the National Pipe Archive, in accordance with Adrian’s long term wish. We are therefore in the fortunate position of having the original manuscript of the mark index together with all of the updates since 1991 (LIVNP 2014.01.192). These updates include moulded marks, French and Dutch marks as well as groups of pipes that fall into broad types such as “heads”, “transport”, “advertising”, “floral” and “societies” etc.
As part of the present Historic England funded project we made a start on digitising this mark index. To date we have scanned the first part of the alphabetical list – A to F – which we hope to get live on the website within the next few days. Time permitting, and within the confines of the current project, we are hopeful that we will be able to not only digitise more of the mark index, but also some of Adrian’s other invaluable resources. So watch this space!
Hello there! My name is Daniel. I am an Etruscan archaeologist. Yet, on Wednesday of every week I work at the National Pipe Archive digitising all sorts of pipe related documentation. I have, so far, scanned my way through a small sample of David Atkinson’s notebooks (those discussed below) and A through to F of Adrian Oswald’s pipe makers mark index (more coming soon). The collections of the National Pipe Archive to be digitised are as varied as they are vast. I certainly have a lot to be getting on with…
At the outset I envisioned I was in for a tedious (although undoubtedly worthwhile) task. Yet, as I progressed it became more and more difficult not to become engrossed in the material I was scanning. Surprisingly, the task was more absorbing than tedious. The character and charm of every document (be it notes, correspondence, or drawings) emerges from their meticulous detail and careful arrangement. I am consistently impressed by the level of thought, commitment, and time expended by their authors to create such useful resources.
The scanning can be a challenge (in more ways than one) but it is gratifying to be a part of the project that aims to facilitate improved access to so impressive an archive. The knowledge of the archive is now not only being more efficiently preserved, but also more efficiently opened to those who would put such knowledge to good use. I think those who so thoroughly devoted themselves to their study of pipes would be immensely gratified to see their work shared so widely. To see it continue to make an impact. To see it function as a key component of the National Pipe Archive. To see it digitised.
The scanning is absorbing because each scanned item more easily shares another amazing resource.
As of 1:30am this morning the “new look” Archive website went live. OK, so there are a few teething problems and one or two items might need re-positioning, but we’re happy that it has a much more up-to-date look. It now also provides the structure we need for our new “How to….” pages, which we will be uploading over the coming weeks.
As part of the Historic England funded project we are hoping to provide a “one-stop-shop” for pipe identification and recording. The idea is that these new pages will provide guidance for the identification, dating, and processing of your pipe. A sort of “all you ever wanted to know about pipes, but where afraid to ask” page.
As many masters and PhD students will be all to well aware, word limits are the bane of their lives, often leading to dilemmas over what to keep in and what leave out. However, searching through the NPA’s collections today we’ve come across the original manuscript of Iain C Walker PhD thesis Clay Tobacco Pipes, with particular reference to the Bristol Industry, which was submitted in 1973 (LIVNP 2014.01.034/035). Quite a hefty tome when compared to Susan White’s PhD thesis, submitted in 2002 (LIVNP 2005.14.01), which was still well over the 100,000 word limit that is set for todays PhD students.
So bear a thought for those poor supervisors “back in the day” who had a little more reading to do than their modern day counterparts!